Promoting partnership between urban design and urban ecology through social-ecological resilience building

A closer partnership between urban design and urban ecology can yield new knowledge with the predictive advancement of both fields. However, achieving such partnership is not always a straight-forward process due to different epistemological departures. This chapter provides a rudimentary background of the fields of urban design and urban ecology and familiarizes readers with some epistemological characteristics that are useful to consider in all forms…

The Incremental Demise of Urban Green Spaces

More precise explanations are needed to better understand why public green spaces are diminishing in cities, leading to the loss of ecosystem services that humans receive from natural systems. This paper is devoted to the incremental change of green spaces—a fate that is largely undetectable by urban residents. The paper elucidates a set of drivers resulting in the subtle loss of urban green spaces and…

Discounting in the Presence of Scarce Ecosystem Services

has to take account of ecosystem services in consumption and production. Previous literature focuses on the first aspect and shows the importance of the relative price effect, for given growth rates of consumption and ecosystem services. This paper focuses on intermediate ecosystem services in production and shows that for limited substitutability and a low growth rate of these ecosystem services, the growth rate of consumption,…

Being efficient and green by rethinking the urban-rural divide—Combining urban expansion and food production by integrating an ecosystem service perspective into urban planning

A pressing issue for mankind is how to combine urban expansion and food production for present and future generations. Using a case study example –the Stockholm County in Sweden- we illustrate how incorporating an ecosystem service perspective into urban planning may help us rethink the urban-rural divide in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the urban agricultural landscape of Stockholm. In our case study…

The Role of University Campuses in Reconnecting Humans to the Biosphere

In this paper, we explore the potential for integrating university campuses in a global sustainability agenda for a closer reconnection of urban residents to the biosphere. This calls for a socio-cultural transition that allows universities and colleges to reconnect to the biosphere and become active stewards of the Earth System. Recognizing their pivotal role of fostering coming generations of humans, university campuses represent a unique…

Optimal Management of Ecosystem Services with Pollution Traps: The Lake Model Revisited

In this paper, optimal management of the lake model and commonproperty outcomes are reconsidered when the lake model is extended with the slowly changing variable. New optimal trajectories are found that were hidden in the simplified analysis. Furthermore, it is shown that two Nash equilibria may exist with the one leading to the steady state with a high level of ecological services dominating the other…

Valuation of oil spill risk reductions in the Arctic

In this study, data from a contingent valuation (CV) study in Lofoten, Norway, are used to assess the value of ecosystem services at risk from oil spills in the Arctic. It is investigated to which extent subjective opinion about the probability of a potential oil spill steers respondents’ willingness to pay (WTP) for reducing risk. The respondents’ preferences are analysed for ecosystem services. Finally, differences…

Adaptive governance, ecosystem management, and natural capital

To gain insights into the effects of adaptive governance on natural capital, we compare three well-studied initiatives; a landscape in Southern Sweden, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. We assess changes in natural capital and ecosystem services related to these social–ecological governance approaches to ecosystem management and investigate their capacity to respond to change and new challenges. The adaptive…

Optimal Management of Ecosystem Services with Pollution Traps: The Lake Model Revisited

In this paper, optimal management of the lake model and common- property outcomes are reconsidered when the lake model is extended with a slowly changing variable (describing sedimentation and recycling of phosphorus), which is considered xed in the simplied version that has been used in the literature up to now. Some intuitive results are reconrmed but new optimal trajectories are found that were hidden in…

Reconnecting Cities to the Biosphere: Stewardship of Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecosystem Services

Within-city green infrastructure can offer opportunities and new contexts for people to become stewards of ecosystem services. We analyze cities as social–ecological systems, synthesize the literature, and provide examples from more than 15 years of research in the Stockholm urban region, Sweden. The social–ecological approach spans from investigating ecosystem properties to the social frameworks and personal values that drive and shape human interactions with nature….

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